Automated Workplace Drug Testing

Screening and confirmation of psilocin, mitragynine, phencyclidine, ketamine and ketamine metabolites by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

Journal of Analytical Toxicology Abstract

A safe and productive workplace requires a sober workforce, free from substances that impair judgment and concentration. Although drug monitoring programs already exist, the scope and loopholes of standard workplace testing panels are well known, allowing other substances to remain a source of risk. Therefore, a high-throughput urine screening method for psilocin, mitragynine, phencyclidine, ketamine, norketamine and dehydronorketamine was developed and validated in conjunction with a urine and blood confirmation method. There are analytical challenges to overcome with psilocin and mitragynine, particularly when it comes to drug stability and unambiguous identification in authentic specimens. Screening and confirmation methods were validated according to the American National Standards Institute/Academy Standards Board (ANSI/ASB) Standard 036, Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology. An automated liquid handling system equipped with dispersive pipette extraction tips was utilized for preparing screening samples, whereas an offline solid-phase extraction method was used for confirmation sample preparation. Both methods utilized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to achieve limits of detection between 1–5 ng/mL for the screening method and 1 ng/mL for the confirmation method. Automation allows for faster throughput and enhanced quality assurance, which improves turnaround time. Compared to previous in-house methods, specimen volumes were substantially decreased for both blood and urine, which is an advantage when volume is limited. This screening technique is well suited for evaluating large numbers of specimens from those employed in safety-sensitive workforce positions. This method can be utilized by workplace drug testing, human performance and postmortem laboratories seeking robust qualitative screening and confirmation methods for analytes that have traditionally been challenging to routinely analyze.

About Dispersive Pipette Xtraction

Dispersive Pipette XTRaction is a patented technology and the flagship product of DPX. XTR tips with dispersive sorbent chemistry can be used for cleanup or bind-wash-elute protocols for a wide variety of sample preparation applications.

Dispersive Pipette XTRaction supports:

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XTR tips can be ordered with a  wide range of sorbent chemistry options  for extraction and cleanup methods for clinical applications and forensic toxicology.